PYEONGCHANG-The decision by the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) to overturn lifetime Olympic bans on 28 Russian athletes came as a complete surprise and it could make the fight against doping more hard, said IOC President Thomas Bach on Sunday.
CAS ruled there was insufficient evidence to show they had broken doping rules during the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics. "I know the President (the IOC's Thomas Bach) is keen to make a statement about that tomorrow as well". "We would never have expected this".
Bach added: "The privilege to be invited requires more than just the absence of a sanction".
"The IOC Commission has taken a shameful decision".
With the Winter Olympics set to open in only three days, Bach faced a barrage of criticism - and entrenched support - from roughly 100 International Olympic Committee members on Tuesday over the decision to exclude many Russian athletes from the Pyeongchang Games.
However, Russian athletes who can prove they are clean will be invited to compete under a neutral flag, and will be known as Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR). By the opening ceremonies, though, it'll warm up to a toasty 37 degrees.
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The study was conducted by 22 scientists at research centres in the United States and Europe. One is even used in the production of an ozone-friendly replacement for CFCs.
"The IOC also suspended the ROC based on the reports of alleged doping violations released by the Oswald Commission IOC commission, headed by former Switzerland President Samuel Schmid, banning the national team from participating in the 2018 Olympic Games".
Justifying the decision to snub Russian athletes cleared by CAS, the International Olympic Committee said it had considered "additional elements and/or evidence" which was not available to the Oswald Commission, but was presented to the International Olympic Committee panel by WADA.
Tokyo initially struggled with preparations after being awarded the Games in 2013, scrapping plans for an expensive new stadium, reducing a ballooning budget from more than $26 billion to $16.8 billion and dealing with a number of environmental issues.
"We have some concerns about the quality of this decision", Bach told reporters on Sunday, questioning why the court didn't take into into account the "systemic manipulation of the anti-doping system in Russia". The WADA-commissioned report by Canadian lawyer Richard McLaren accused Russian Federation of mass doping violations during the Sochi Olympics, including tampering with samples.
However, the vetting took account of a wide-ranging number of criteria from suspicion in connection with doping practices in Russian Federation and at the Sochi 2014 games to information from the restored database of Moscow's anti-doping laboratory.
"They want to consolidate the two cases", Reeb said.