It was easy to wonder how Iceland were going to get back into this match.
Although there was no missed penalty, Portugal could only muster a 1-1 draw and Ronaldo failed to score from 10 shots on goal.
After conceding in the 19 minute, Iceland responded with a goal of their own just 4 minutes later.
VAR has been used to varying degrees of success in Serie A and the German Bundesliga, while Federation Internationale de Football Association used the system at the Confederations Cup in Russia a year ago. Before trailing, Iceland could have taken the lead but Birkir Bjarnason side-footed a shot wide of goal when Caballero was exposed.
The small Nordic island nation's team created several first-half chances despite having only 22 percent possession, and pushed back Argentina's waves of second- half attacks.
Messi's first chance came on 17 minutes, when a shot from distance brought a good stop from the Iceland 'keeper Hannes Þór Halldórsson.
Despite the world-class goalscoring talent available to Argentina, Messi had to drag them to the World Cup nearly single-handedly, and they'll be relying on him a lot if they're to progress deep into the competition.
The Argentina skipper has now missed four of the last seven penalties that he has taken for club and country combined. Because we could have sold much more in Iceland. "I looked at a lot of penalties from Messi", Halldorsson said.
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A final free kick by Messi in the 95th minute appropriately sailed into a wall thick with Iceland players.
"Croatia are a great team and Nigeria are also good".
The keeper also produced a late save to keep out an attempt from substitute Cristian Pavon as Iceland - who also drew 1-1 with eventual victor Portugal in its Euro 2016 opener - held on to clinch another famous result in their footballing history.
"Evaluating Leo's performance is very hard because they played nearly the whole game in their own half", he said.
Heimir Hallgrimsson got his tactics spot on. To start with winning is always important, now we have to think about Croatia.
Just don't expect Iceland to be at all intimidated by Argentina and its superstar forward, going by its European Championship debut two years ago.
It feels like Groundhog Day with Argentina as every World Cup the expectations are raised, there's a feeling they've found the right combination this time, but ultimately it results in the same frustrations and disappointment.