According to global media, four to five rounds were fired from a moving white auto, targetting the security booth outside Gate 6 at the embassy in Ankara.
The attack comes amid increased tensions between the two countries over the US applying pressure to Turkey to free North Carolina Christian Pastor Andrew Brunson, who Turkey claims supported Kurdish militants and assisted in the 2016 coup against Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
The attack coincided with a deepening row between Ankara and Washington over the trial of a USA pastor in Turkey.
Authorities later detained one person in relation to the shooting, the state-run Anadolu news agency said, without giving any details.
"We can confirm a security incident took place at the U.S. Embassy early this morning".
"We thank the Turkish National Police for their rapid response".
The president said those who believe they will bring Turkey to its knees through the foreign currency exchange rate "will soon see they are mistaken".
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USA administration had imposed sanctions and vows to do more against Turkey in the case the pastor would not be released immediately.
Erdogan's spokesman Ibrahim Kalin said the incident was being investigated. While the security officials have gathered cartridges and other evidence from the spot.
The U.S. mission is closed this week as Turkey celebrates the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha.
President Tayyip Erdogan's spokesman condemned the attack as an attempt "to create chaos" and the Turkish Foreign Ministry said it had increased security measures for the embassy and other US missions and employees in Turkey.
U.S. President Donald Trump has called for his immediate release and threatened more sanctions.
The United States recently imposed economic penalties on Turkey, including tariffs on Turkish steel and aluminum, that contributed to a slide in the value of the Turkish lira.