The world is failing in its effort to avert catastrophic climate change, a United Nations panel warned Monday, and the result will be more deaths and climate refugees due to extreme weather and rising seas, a greater rate of species extinction, and reduced economic growth.
"The next few years are probably the most important in our history", Debra Roberts, co-chair of the IPCC Working Group II, said in a statement marking the report's release.
Warming of 2C above pre-industrial levels had widely been thought of as the threshold beyond which risky climate change will occur, but vulnerable countries such as low-lying island states warn rises above 1.5C will threaten their survival.
The 33-page summary includes the explicit warnings yet about the consequences of allowing global temperatures to rise in excess of 1.5 degrees Celsius. At least 70 percent of electricity supply will need to come from renewables by 2050 to stay within the 1.5C limit, compared with about 25 percent now.
The report was the first commissioned by world leaders under the Paris Climate Accord from which President Trump is withdrawing the USA and was first covered by The New York Times.
Around 6 percent of insects, 8 percent of plants, and 4 percent of vertebrates are projected to be negatively affected by global warming of 1.5°C, namely by shrinking their natural geographic range, compared with 18 percent of insects, 16 percent of plants and 8 percent of vertebrates for global warming of 2°C.
The report involved all three IPCC working groups: physical sciences; impacts adaption and vulnerability; and mitigation of climate change.
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And all Curtis Johnson seemed to hold was that that was excluded. "We wish you a long and happy career in our common calling". He joked with the crowd that upon nominating him, he told Kavanaugh that he expected a quick and easy confirmation process.
Carbon emissions need to reach "net zero" by 2050 and almost halve from 2010 levels by 2030.
The unprecedented flooding in Kerala, drought in Cape Town and searing heat waves in Europe are signs that climate change is already happening.
Many in Trump's Republican party are self-described climate change sceptics, questioning whether the overwhelming consensus of scientists around the world about manmade causes for ever-rising temperatures is accurate. "What we're playing for now is to see if we can limit climate change to the point where we don't wipe out civilizations, where we retain something like the planet that we once knew".
If every country fulfills the pledges it made for the Paris agreement in 2015, the world may still warm 2.6 to 3.2 degrees C by the end of the century, by some estimates. Temperatures would be 1.5C higher between 2030 and 2052 if the world continued at its current pace, it warned.
Models of scenarios where warming is limited to 1.5 degrees all involve mass deployments of carbon dioxide removal techniques and technologies, such as reforestation and carbon capture and storage, although the extent of those deployments really depends on how much we start cutting CO2 emissions before 2030.
The report explains why it's so important that we meet the 1.5 degree target, and how hard that will be to accomplish.
While more than 180 countries have accepted the report's summary, the United States (which is the second biggest emitter in the world) said that their acceptance of the report does not "imply endorsement" of the findings.