After the statement was released, a Turkish official told the Washington Post -- for which Khashoggi was a contributor -- that authorities are investigating a theory the body was destroyed in acid, either in the consulate or the Saudi consul's nearby residence.
Prince Mohammad bin Salman, who has positioned himself as a Saudi reformer, has denounced the murder as "repulsive" and strongly denied any involvement.
While insisting the United States did not condone Khashoggi's killing, the top USA diplomat said the United States had "deep and long-term strategic relationships" with Saudi Arabia and "we intend to make sure that those relationships remain intact".
The United States is urging Saudi Arabia to locate the body of slain journalist Jamal Khashoggi and return it to his family as soon as possible. Ankara maintains that there is strong proof that the killing of the Saudi journalist at the Saudi consulate on October 2 came as a result of a pre-planned operation by a squad of hitmen rather than a spontaneous fist-fight incident, as claimed by Riyadh.
The administration has remained adamant that Khashoggi's death will not jeopardise a $110bn arms deal with Saudi Arabia that was approved last May.
According to The Washington Post, Netanyahu has specifically told the White House that the crown prince is a key strategic partner and a linchpin of the US-Israeli front against Iran's regional influence.
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A journalist who visited her in prison before the verdict said she appeared to have memory loss and confusion. Those accused are incarcerated immediately, denied bail in most cases and put in solitary confinement.
Mr Khashoggi's family vehemently denied that he was in any way risky or a member of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Prince Turki reiterated that the Kingdom is committed to bringing to justice those responsible for Khashoggi's murder "and whoever else failed to uphold the law". "To claim otherwise would be ridiculous", the statement said.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, and Istanbul's chief prosecutor, Irfan Fidan, separately called on their Saudi counterparts to identify the collaborator this week. "The president said we will demand accountability for those who were involved in the commission of this heinous crime".
U.S. activists have launched a petition, calling for a section of road near the Saudi embassy in Washington to be renamed Jamal Khashoggi Way.
UK Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt also said it was an appalling act, adding that it had "possibly" given the United States and the UK a chance to put new pressure on Saudi Arabia over other issues.
He entered the consulate to sort out documents for his marriage to his Turkish fiancée, Hatice Cengiz. Khashoggi, once close to the Saudi royal family, moved to the Washington, D.C. area in recent years.