GM doesn't foresee an economic downturn and is making the cuts "to get in front of it while the company is strong and while the economy is strong", CEO Mary Barra told reporters.
The decision will have a major impact on jobs in some of the key states like OH and MI.
"We don't like it", Trump said, adding "I believe they'll be opening up something else".
The White House has yet to comment on GM's plans.
GM and its rivals are facing rising bills for technological transformation, increased risks from USA trade policy and investors reluctant to fund their traditional product strategies.
General Motors has confirmed five factory closures, signalling the end for six of its increasingly unpopular models - and as many as 14,000 jobs.
Trump expressed dismay at the plan and said he was "very tough" with Barra when they discussed the reorganisation. "These are things we are doing to strengthen our core business".
In the Indian market, GM used to retail Chevrolet cars but had halted domestic sales in 2017. A day earlier, Trump issued a vague threat to GM warning it to preserve a key plant in the presidential bellwether state of OH, where the company has marked its Lordstown plant for closure.
The restructuring reflects the changing USA and North American auto markets as manufacturers continue a dramatic shift away from cars toward SUVs and trucks.
Mr. Trump said Monday he is "not happy" with GM's decision and warned Ms. Barra to build another plant in OH soon. "That's what we're working towards", Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland said Tuesday.
The White House is threatening to curtail federal subsidies for electric cars in response to General Motors' decision to shut down auto production at plants in OH and MI.
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Kristin Dziczek of the Center for Automotive Research in MI argued it would be short-sighted for the federal government to target GM's electric cars for punishment, since those are expected to play a growing role in the industry's future. The expenditures to bring those vehicles to production will start to hit with new batteries and body architectures created to generate profits. But Bob Lutz, GM's former vice-chairman, said the company was facing "hard facts".
In an effort to boost sales, the federal government provides $7,500 in tax credits for every electric, plug-in auto sold. The automaker has come under pressure from investors to return more cash in the form of share buybacks and dividends.
Are other automakers planning similar cuts?
Barra said tariffs on imported aluminum and steel have hit the company, but she stopped short of saying they had anything to do with the restructuring.
The cuts are a part of a plan to adapt to changing market demands, favouring SUVs over sedans and coupes, while also shifting to electric and self-driving vehicles, which GM sees as central to the future, NBC reported.
"GM is committed to maintaining a strong manufacturing presence in the US, as evidenced by our more than $22 billion investments in USA operations since 2009". Another two will close outside North America.
The decision is "devastating" for workers at the plant and auto suppliers, but Oshawa has adapted over the years and will survive this as well, DesRosiers added.
"Look, we made this deal, we've worked with you along the way, we've done other things with mileage standards, for example, and other related regulations", Mr Kudlow said. Some UAW workers could land jobs at other GM factories, but many will face uncertain futures unless GM reverses course. "We must step away from the anti-worker thinking of seeking simply the lowest labor cost on the planet", Gary Jones, the union's president, said Monday.
But that argument all but evaporated Monday when the company announced that as part of its plan to save US$6 billion by the year 2020, it was also shutting down production at four other USA plants - several of them deep in Rust Belt states that helped elevate Trump to the presidency in 2016.
The reduction includes about 8,000 white-collar employees, or 15 percent of GM's North American white-collar workforce. But investors obviously like what they see so far: the company moving to cut its labor costs to brace for lower auto sales, even if it means putting thousands of workers on the unemployment line. At GM's Detroit headquarters on Monday, there were signs directing people to a "new hire orientation" meeting.